Tourette Syndrome

Tourette Syndrome Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a type of neurological disorder that is characterised by the occurrence of tics. Tics are impulsive movements/twitches in the body or vocal sounds that occur due to sudden, repetitive muscular contraction. While not technically being ‘involuntary’, tics are often referred to as an involuntary act as they are difficult…

Laryngitis

The larynx, or voice box, is an organ found in the upper region at the back of the throat that contains the vocal cords which are responsible for the vocal sounds that we make. The vocal cords comprise of two membranous folds that ideally open and close smoothly and create sounds with their movement and…

What’s in a Cramp?

A muscle cramp, or spasm, occurs as a result of prolonged involuntary contraction of a muscle group, a single muscle, or a group of fibres within a muscle. This may last from between a few seconds up to several minutes. A spasm may sometimes be felt in its mild form as a continuous twitching, but…

What’s in a Heartbeat?

The human heart is fundamentally a fist-sized muscular organ located in the thoracic (chest) cavity. Small as it is, the heart plays a huge role in the functioning of the body by pumping blood around to supply organs and tissues with oxygen and nutrients, and to the lungs for purification. Circulation Arteries transport blood away…

Hyper- and Hypo- thyroidism

The thyroid gland is a component of the endocrine system and is responsible for the synthesis and release of two principal hormones – triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), using iodine obtained from our diet. The thyroid gland is regulated by the hypothalamus and pituitary glands in the brain, which are also components of the endocrine…

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), or ‘cot death’, is a form of sudden unexpected infant death (SUID) which involves the sudden and unexplained death of a seemingly healthy infant. This usually involves infants below the age of one year (most commonly below six months) and more often than not occurs while they are asleep. According…

Crohn’s Disease

Crohn’s disease is a form of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that prevails at one or more locations along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. It affects both males and females equally, and is more prevalent in developed countries, Europe and North America than in other parts of the world. Patients with the disease may experience intermittent…

What is Chemotherapy?

In a strict sense, ‘chemotherapy’ refers to the use of chemical drugs to treat any given illness. However, it is most commonly and almost solely used with reference to the use of drugs in the treatment of cancer, which is what this article focuses on. Contrary to surgery and radiation therapy, both of which target…

Urticaria (Hives)

Urticaria, or hives, is a condition that affects up to 20% of the population at least once in their lifetime. While the source of the condition is immunology-related, it is often categorised as a dermatological condition due to its manifestation as small, pink/red, itchy bumps (welts) on the skin. They may occur on any part…

Cataract

Cataract refers to the condition where the lens of the eye – a transparent, biconvex structure behind the iris that focuses light onto the retina so that we see things as they are – develops cloudy patches. These patches usually increase in area over time, subsequently affecting one’s vision. Cataract may develop in only one…