Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neuro-developmental disorder that is usually diagnosed during childhood. Although it is more commonly diagnosed in boys, this is mostly because boys tend to show their symptoms more, externally. However, there is no evidence to suggest that actual incidence is higher in males than in females. Sometimes, symptoms may…

Transverse Myelitis

Transverse myelitis (TM) is a neurological disorder that affects around 1-8 per million people annually. It involves inflammation of the spinal cord, which is made up of neurons (nerve cells) responsible for carrying nerve impulses between the brain and the rest of the body. ‘Transverse’ refers to the spinal cord being affected across a particular…

Encephalitis

Encephalitis is an inflammation of the brain tissue that causes the brain to become swollen. It is not a very common condition and, on average, affects about 10-15 individuals per 100,000 annually. The condition can be life threatening and therefore requires immediate medical attention. Encephalitis more commonly affects small children than adults. Older people are…

Tourette Syndrome

Tourette Syndrome Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a type of neurological disorder that is characterised by the occurrence of tics. Tics are impulsive movements/twitches in the body or vocal sounds that occur due to sudden, repetitive muscular contraction. While not technically being ‘involuntary’, tics are often referred to as an involuntary act as they are difficult…

Laryngitis

The larynx, or voice box, is an organ found in the upper region at the back of the throat that contains the vocal cords which are responsible for the vocal sounds that we make. The vocal cords comprise of two membranous folds that ideally open and close smoothly and create sounds with their movement and…

What’s in a Cramp?

A muscle cramp, or spasm, occurs as a result of prolonged involuntary contraction of a muscle group, a single muscle, or a group of fibres within a muscle. This may last from between a few seconds up to several minutes. A spasm may sometimes be felt in its mild form as a continuous twitching, but…

Hyper- and Hypo- thyroidism

The thyroid gland is a component of the endocrine system and is responsible for the synthesis and release of two principal hormones – triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), using iodine obtained from our diet. The thyroid gland is regulated by the hypothalamus and pituitary glands in the brain, which are also components of the endocrine…

Hair Shedding and Hair Loss

On average, a healthy person sheds between 50-100 strands of hair a day, from around 100,000 hair follicles that are usually present on the scalp. This is considered to be normal hair shedding, and accounts for part of the natural hair cycle. Hair loss refers to significantly excessive shedding over a period of time, that…

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), or ‘cot death’, is a form of sudden unexpected infant death (SUID) which involves the sudden and unexplained death of a seemingly healthy infant. This usually involves infants below the age of one year (most commonly below six months) and more often than not occurs while they are asleep. According…

Endometriosis

The inner lining of the uterus that is shed during menstruation every month is known as endometrium and the tissue present on this inner wall is called endometrial tissue. Endometriosis refers to the abnormal growth of endometrial tissue in areas outside of the uterus. This may manifest in different parts of the abdomen including: ovaries…