Cleft Lip and Palate

One in 700 babies around the world are born with a cleft – a gap or a split – in their upper lip and/or palate (roof of the mouth). It is a birth defect that arises from improper formation in the uterus. Symptoms There are several ways in which a cleft can manifest itself. The…

Dental Caries (Cavities)

Dental caries – cavities or tooth decays, as they are commonly known – are caused by harmful bacteria in our mouth that feed on sugar and starch in food we consume, and produce acids as a by-product. Over time, these acids could attack and damage the teeth, starting with the enamel and working their way…

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, or OCD – as it is commonly known, is a mental disorder that can affect an individual in numerous ways. For some, symptoms are very mild and have little effect on their daily lives. However, for others, dealing with their own thoughts and actions is an everyday battle than can have a…

Dyslexia

Dyslexia refers to a learning disability that can affect an individual in different ways. The most commonly affected skills are reading and writing, where spelling and phonetics are often particularly impacted. Organisational skills and the ability to process and retain information may also be affected. However, dyslexia does not affect intelligence. In fact, dyslexic people…

Myopia (Short-sightedness) and Hyperopia (Long-sightedness)

Eyesight/vision is one of our five senses that we largely rely on for basic survival and day-to-day navigation. The image below shows the structure of the eye. Our vision is determined by the collective function of different parts of the eye. Light from an object that enters through the clear, dome-shaped cornea passes through the…

Is it Gastritis or Acid Reflux (GERD)?

Gastritis and acid reflux – otherwise known as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) – are terms that are often (mis)used interchangeably due to commonalities between them. However, despite overlapping grey areas, they are two different issues that arise from reasons of their own. Symptoms Symptoms for the two diseases may include most or all of the…

Varicella (aka Chickenpox)

Varicella, or what we commonly call chickenpox, is an infectious communicable viral disease that mostly affects children. However, it can also occur in adults – particularly those who have not had chickenpox during their childhood or have not been vaccinated. Symptoms Chickenpox is typically characterised by the appearance of around 250-500 itchy blisters all over…

Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental condition that results from exposure to some sort of traumatic experience, and is believed to affect around eight out of every 100 people. Trauma (or a traumatic experience) is referred to as a deeply disturbing or distressing event that causes an overwhelming amount of stress to an individual….

Coronaviruses

(Scroll down for an update posted on 29/03/2020.) With the ongoing COVID-19 outbreak, TBL felt that it would only be apt to have a discussion on the tiny microbes that are currently making a huge impact on global healthcare, travel, trade and economy. Viruses are tiny infectious microorganisms that can infect any living organism (including…

To Vax or Not to Vax? The Vaccine Hesitancy Problem

“The World Health Organization estimates that vaccines prevented at least 10 million deaths in just five years between 2010 and 2015. It says vaccines have been one of the biggest success stories of modern medicine.” – BBC, June 2019 “The World Health Organization (WHO) recently listed vaccine hesitancy as one of their top 10 biggest…