Myopia (Short-sightedness) and Hyperopia (Long-sightedness)

Eyesight/vision is one of our five senses that we largely rely on for basic survival and day-to-day navigation. The image below shows the structure of the eye. Our vision is determined by the collective function of different parts of the eye. Light from an object that enters through the clear, dome-shaped cornea passes through the…

Is it Gastritis or Acid Reflux (GERD)?

Gastritis and acid reflux – otherwise known as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) – are terms that are often (mis)used interchangeably due to commonalities between them. However, despite overlapping grey areas, they are two different issues that arise from reasons of their own. Symptoms Symptoms for the two diseases may include most or all of the…

Varicella (aka Chickenpox)

Varicella, or what we commonly call chickenpox, is an infectious communicable viral disease that mostly affects children. However, it can also occur in adults – particularly those who have not had chickenpox during their childhood or have not been vaccinated. Symptoms Chickenpox is typically characterised by the appearance of around 250-500 itchy blisters all over…

Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental condition that results from exposure to some sort of traumatic experience, and is believed to affect around eight out of every 100 people. Trauma (or a traumatic experience) is referred to as a deeply disturbing or distressing event that causes an overwhelming amount of stress to an individual….

Coronaviruses

(Scroll down for an update posted on 29/03/2020.) With the ongoing COVID-19 outbreak, TBL felt that it would only be apt to have a discussion on the tiny microbes that are currently making a huge impact on global healthcare, travel, trade and economy. Viruses are tiny infectious microorganisms that can infect any living organism (including…

To Vax or Not to Vax? The Vaccine Hesitancy Problem

“The World Health Organization estimates that vaccines prevented at least 10 million deaths in just five years between 2010 and 2015. It says vaccines have been one of the biggest success stories of modern medicine.” – BBC, June 2019 “The World Health Organization (WHO) recently listed vaccine hesitancy as one of their top 10 biggest…

The ‘X’ Factor: X-linked Inheritance

X-linked inheritance is a less heard / spoken of phenomenon that could give rise to various genetic disorders. In order to understand the bigger picture, it would be useful to first familiarise with a few basics in genetics. (The matter that follows might come across as a little extra, and possibly more technical than most…

Vitiligo

Vitiligo is a non-communicable, dermatological condition that affects about 0.5% – 1.0% of the world’s population. It is characterised by the appearance of pale/white coloured patches on the skin and is usually progressive in nature. The condition is more apparent in people with darker skin due to a greater contrast, however ethnicity is not a…

Antibiotic Resistance – What’s the Problem?

Antibiotic resistance is not a disease, but rather is a phenomenon that poses a significant challenge to the treatment of bacterial infections and to global health in general. The term refers to the development of resistance in bacteria (and sometimes fungi) towards antibiotics that would ideally be used in the treatment against them. Based on…

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)

Polycystic ovarian syndrome, or PCOS as it is commonly known, is a condition that affects around one in ten women around the world. It is caused by a hormonal imbalance which can bring about several metabolic and physical changes in the sufferer. The ovaries (left and right) are the organs in the female reproductive system…